美版知乎:中国文化正在复兴吗

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Is Chinese culture currently undergoing a renaissance?

中国文化正在复兴吗?

以下是Quora读者的评论:

Jamie Cawley, LIved in China 2012-2018, now Hong Kong

When I arrived in China, six years ago, it seemed to me there was a clear divide:

everything modern was western

everything Chinese was old (or a copy of old things)

This is still overwhelmingly true: As an exercise I asked my design students to give me any ideas for what a Chinese car would look like - that is an identifiably Chinese car as opposed to a copy of existing western-derived model styles and they really came up with nothing: no idea how to start thinking about this concept. Not interested either.

Embarrassingly, I have seen some western designers make a perfectly decent job of such an exercise with Chinese-style office furniture.

However, before I left Beijing I started to see a few glimmerings at 798 (and what a great place that is!) of original Chinese modern design which was very exciting.

My perception of TV, music and movies is as above as well, still copying western genres with the exception of those inspired by ancient Chinese legends - even the ‘kung-fu’ is a western idea of China (from the original TV series and HK Bruce Lee movies) copied back. Maybe someone will correct this but I do not accept that the huge number of period soaps with wicked Japanese are any kind of distinctively Chinese culture.

I am told that the position in fashion is better, with much more Chinese+modern input but do not personally follow this area.

At the moment the students I deal with remain just uninterested in the idea of developing a modern Chinese culture - being able to get up there with western ideas is what they want, so I think it may be a while before momentum develops behind Chinese culture.

I would love to be wrong, Paul, but so far my attempts to observe and promote a contemporary Chinese culture have largely failed. I hope your question with throw up some counter examples.

六年前,当我来到中国时,我觉得这里有一种明显的文化割裂:

一切现代的都是西方的,

一切中式的都是老旧的(或老物件的复制品)

现在这仍然是压倒性的事实:作为练习,我让我的学生想想中国汽车会是什么样子——一眼就能看出的中国汽车,不是西方车型的仿款,他们真的一点都没结果:不知道该如何开始构思这个概念。也不感兴趣。

而令人尴尬的是,我曾见过一些西方设计师设计出了相当不错的中式办公家具。

不过,在我离开北京之前,我开始在798看到了中国现代原创设计的一些亮点(这是一个多么棒的地方啊!)

在我看来,电视、音乐和电影也是如此,除了那些受中国古代传说启发的电影之外,一样还是照搬西方流派——甚至“中国功夫”也是照搬西方对中国的看法(源自原版电视剧和香港李小龙电影)。也许有人会纠正这一点,但我不认为充斥着大批邪恶日本人的历史肥皂剧是种独特的中国文化。

我被告知时尚界要好一些,有更多的中国+现代的结合,但我个人并不关注这个领域。

目前,我接触的学生仍然对提升现代中国文化的想法不感兴趣——他们希望能赶上西方的创意,所以我认为中国文化的发展可能还需要一段时间。

Paul,我希望我是错的,但到目前为止,我观察和推广当代中国文化的尝试基本上都失败了。我希望有人能对你的问题提出一些反例。

 

Joseph Holleman, CEO of Magister Technologies Inc., Author of "The Prosperity Clock" book series.

I would suggest that China is not undergoing a renaissance but is just now starting one.

In fact, Donald Trump may have inadvertently been a catalyst for this by galvanizing the Chinese people to see that their own culture of thousands of years, their own collective creativity, their own innovativeness (at least at this point in time) is just as good, if not better than what there is in the West and it is time to stop wanting to emulate Western ideals, economic policies, and politics.

Not to imply that those sentiments did not already exist, just that now with Trump threatening them with a trade war, threatening major Chinese companies, etc., that now the entire population is thinking it is time to become completely independent of the West and go their own way.

The long term cyclical work I have done for my books suggests that the Eastern world often lags one cyclical stage behind the West, at least until that part of the world emerges as the dominant region.

So now you have a period where the US just recently exited its own renaissance period and has entered into its next cyclical stage which is a “secondary crisis” period where established institutions tend to be torn down and experience a period of “disintegration”. This will likely be the opening that the East, primarily China, needs to emerge as the dominant economic power in the world in the upcoming decades.

In the East, however, because of this cyclical lag, we should see China and the rest of the East now beginning its own 40 to 50 year Renaissance period while the West struggles with a period of internal crisis.

我想说的是,中国并没有正在经历复兴,而是刚刚开始复兴。

事实上,唐纳德·特朗普可能在无意之中成为了复兴的催化剂,他让中国人民看到了自己国家几千年的文化,集体创造力,创新(至少在现代)即使没有西方优秀,也是很优秀的,是时候停止效仿西方理想、经济政策和政治的想法了。

我并不是说这些情绪不存在,只是说现在特朗普用贸易战威胁他们,威胁中国的大公司等等,现在所有人都认为中国应该独立于西方,走自己的路了。

我为我的书所做的长期的周期性研究表明,东方世界经常落后于西方世界,至少在东方世界成为主导地区之前是如此。

现在,美国刚刚走出了自己的文艺复兴时期,进入了下一个周期阶段,这是一个“二次危机”时期,在这个时期,已建立的机构往往会被摧毁,并经历一段“”时期。这可能是一个契机,让东方国家(主要是中国)在未来几十年里成为世界经济的主导力量。

然而,在东方,由于这种周期性的滞后,我们会看到中国和东方其他国家现在开始了自己40到50年的复兴时期,而西方则在与内部危机作斗争。

 

Godfree Roberts, Ed.D. Education & Geopolitics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (1973)

Don’t confuse two very different things, culture and cultural artifacts.

We typically call cultural artifacts ‘art,’ like music and painting, poetry and furniture and architecture. Their form is influenced by the culture that produces them (German classical music is bombastic and martial, for example) but there is no strict 1:1 coherence between a culture and its artifacts. As cultures grow more prosperous they tend to produce more and better-quality artifacts, as you see during China’s Song and France’s Enlightenment periods.

A culture, on the other hand, is the pre-solved environment in which a society lives and needs no artifacts to survive. Being nomadic, Australia’s Aborigines had few artifacts but nevertheless sustained a sophisticated psychic culture for a thousand years. The Chinese people went through a hellish century that destroyed many of their artifacts but their culture was untouched.

One reason China’s culture remained untouched is that it is so old. It was designed 2500 years ago and first implemented 2100 years ago and has been constantly refined ever since. The current dynasty is still rebuilding it (on the same foundations) after the century of humiliation and, in the process, is refining it even more by, for example, making corruption impossible and insisting that Confucian ren, compassion, means that ‘no one is poor and everyone receives an education, has paid employment, more than enough food and clothing, access to medical services, old-age support, a home and a comfortable life’. Confucius would be extremely pleased at those refinements and they’re signs that China’s culture is currently undergoing a renaissance.

不要混淆两个非常不同的东西,文化和文化制品。

我们通常把文化制品称为“艺术”,比如音乐、绘画、诗歌、家具和建筑。它们的形式受到托生文化的影响(例如,德国古典音乐很华丽、激昂),但是文化和它的人工制品之间没有严格的1:1的对应。随着文化越来越繁荣,它们往往会创造出更多、质量更好的手工艺品,正如你在中国的宋朝和法国的启蒙时期所看到的那样。

另一方面,文化是一个社会赖以生存的预先解决的环境,不需要依赖人工制品来延续。作为游牧民族,澳大利亚的土著居民拥有很少的手工艺品,但他们仍然保持了一千年复杂的精神文化。中国人民经历了地狱般的一个世纪,许多文物被摧毁,但他们的文化却未受影响。

中国文化保持原样的一个原因是它太古老了。它形成于2500年前,在2100年前首次出现,并一直在不荣华彩票登录断完善。当代王朝在长达一个世纪的屈辱后,仍然在不断地重建它,在这个过程中,中国正在进一步完善自己的文化,例如,使腐败成为不可能,并坚持儒家的仁爱思想,即“没有人是穷人,每个人都接受教育,都有工作,衣食无忧,享受医疗服务,养老保障,安居乐业。”孔子会对这些进步感到非常宽慰,这是中国文化正在经历复兴的迹象。

 

Callan Chua, Been Learning how to make it in China for the past 10 years.

This answer took me awhile to put together. To actually see if there is a cultural renaissance going on, there is a need to identify trends from previously to now. I also need to define Chinese culture which is really hard as the term culture itself is so broad base.

These are important when defining culture as it means that the Chinese culture, from a conservative outlook of technology during the Qing Dynasty, has underwent major changes to one that is very open to new technology. It would not be silly if we predict that in the future, the term “Very Chinese”, can be used to describe the characteristic of willingness to try new technologies. Somewhere along the lines of very Japanese when it comes to politeness or very European for socialist ideas. I think it’s very possible for future Chinese culture to be understood in that manner.

If we also take food as culture, Chinese food has mainly remained the same in essence and the changes is mostly only in presentation. Surprisingly, I don’t see a lot of cultural change to chinese food. I was expecting more from the chinese in terms of changes to the taste or methods of cooking which would mean a fundamental change in food culture. Or maybe I have not eaten enough yet? I think a better explanation would be that the food renaissance has always been going on or might already be over for the chinese, the variety of real chinese food in China is proof of my conculsion.

So yes, I think Chinese culture is largely going through a period of renaissance, but it’s awareness and recognition is still rather domesticated within the borders. It will spread internationally once it reaches critical mass…and the Chinese with a very big domestic market has a lot of mass.

我花了一段时间才整理出答案。要了解文化复兴是否真正在进行,有必要确定从以前到现在的趋势。我还需要定义何为中国文化,这是很困难的,文化一词本身所涉及的基础非常广泛。

这些在定义文化时是很重要的,因为它意味着中国文化,从清代保守的科技观念开始,已经经历了重大的变化,对新技术非常开放。如果我们预测,未来人们用“非常中国化”这个说法来描述尝试新技术的意愿,也并非痴人梦话。相同的,在礼貌问题上,我们可以说“非常日本化”,或者在社会主义思想上,则可以说“非常欧洲化”。我认为未来的中国文化很有可能以这种方式被人们所理解。

如果我们把食物也当作一种文化来看待,中国食物在本质上基本保持不变,有所变化的基本也只是菜品呈现的形式。令人惊讶的是,我没有看到中国食物有太多的文化变化。我希望中国人在口味和烹饪方法上做出更大的改变,这将意味着饮食文化的根本改变。或者我可能品尝的还不够多?我认为更好的解释是,对于中国人来说,食物复兴一直在进行,或者可能已经结束了,在中国,真正的中国食物的多样性证明了我的观点。

所以,是的,我认为中国文化在很大程度上正在经历一个复兴时期,但它的意识和认知度仍然局限在中国国内。一旦达到临界量,它将开始在国际上传播,中国拥有庞大的人口,是一个庞大的市场。

Traditional Chinese Caligraphy

传统中国书法

Traditional Chinese Dance

传统中国舞蹈

Modern Chinese Dance

现代中国舞蹈

Traditional Chinese Instruments

传统中国乐器

Modern Chinese Instrument? (Yes I’m told it is, despite it looking like a dish rack)

现代中国乐器?(是的,我就是这么被告知的,尽管它看起来像是碗碟架)

Modern Chinese Art

现代中国艺术

Modern Chinese荣华彩票下载 Furniture

现代中国家具

Traditional Chinese Fashion

传统中国风

Modern Chinese Fashion

现代中国风

 

Alec Cawley

I think it is too early to say yet - China is still to busy gobbling up Western developments and has not yet had time to digest them, let alone synthesize them into something new and distinctive.

But I think it will take some time after it appears before such a renaissance is recognized. Precisely because it will be distinctive, it will be dismissed for quite a while as an aberration. For example, from what I hear, Chines Internet culture is developing significantly differently from both Western and other Asian Internet cultures. I expect to see some original ideas coming out of this, though what they might be I cannot guess.

But it will only be when the active generation is one that has already absorbed the shock of the current influx of western derived ideas in childhood. Maybe today’s schoolchildren

我认为现在下结论还为时过早——中国仍在忙于吞噬西方的发展成果,还没有时间去消化它们,更不用说将它们合成新的、独特的东西。

但我认为,在这种复兴出现之后,在人们认识到之前,还需要一段时间。因为它是独特的,所以它会被作为一种反常现象而被长时间忽视。例如,据我所知,中国互联网文化的发展与西方和其他亚洲互联网文化有很大的不同。我希望能从中看到一些原创的想法,尽管我猜不出它们是什么。

但只有当活跃的一代吸收了当前西方衍生思想涌入的冲击时,才会实现。也许就是今天的学生们。

 

Randall Burns, Graduate Certificate Software Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University (2006)

China has been able to turn around a major economic decline and is well on its way to assuming again the traditional role China had in the world economy.

That does not constitute a cultural step forward. It is healing a deep wound.

I think it will be another generation before the Chinese lea-ship is secure enough to loosen controls enough that we’ll see Chinese culture moving in some new directions again.

中国已经成功地扭转了经济的严重衰退,并且正在重新树立中国在世界经济中的传统地位。

这并不构成文化上的进步。它正在治愈一个深深的伤口。

我认为,中国还需要一代人的时间,才能足够安全地放松管制,让我们看到中国文化再次向新的方向发展。

 

Yu Cheng, lived in China (1988-2012)

The economy is certainly rising. Industries are performing reasonably well. But I am not so sure about any cultural renaissance.

I am not really sure what renaissance means actually, because the concept is fundamentally European.

In the Chinese context, a lot of traditions have been carried on by modern people even though Chinese have gong through the dark time in the Cultural Revolution. The Spring Festival, the Mid-Autumn Festival, and many traditional festivals are celebrated as usual. There is no recent changes. People still follow many local customs in wedding ceremonies and funerals. It’s also common to follow some western practices.

So, I think the Chinese way of life is somewhere in between of the west and the east, right now. I didn’t see any ancient cultures coming back, except those that are always there.

A lot of new cultural practices and phenomenons are emerging though, mostly driven by the Internet generation and the young people. They are open to all kinds of American, Japanese, Korean, Chinese cultures and so on. They are also creating their own authentic Chinese cultures, the 21st century version.

For example, you will see Chinese teenagers dressing in some Marvel T-shirt discussing Korean TV shows on their way to schools for their lectures in traditional Chinese musical instruments like Erhu or the Chinese painting.

Try this Chinese song, created by a young Chinese folk singer and musician Zhao Lei. It recently go viral across the Internet and the entire country.

I think China is simply embracing the modern world while carrying many of its ancient legacies that still suit the modern life. For the sake of renaissance, China is indeed picking up its lost position in the global stage, since China used to be a cultural hub for many different civilizations. With the economy developing, we will see more international cultural activities in China, although the country overall is still considered to be conservative.

经济确实在增长。工业表现相当抢眼。但我不确定文化复兴是否会出现。

我不太确定文艺复兴到底意味着什么,因为这个概念基本上是欧洲的。

在中国的历史背景下,尽管中国人已经度过了文化大革命的黑暗时期,但许多传统仍被现代人传承了下来。人们照常庆祝春节、中秋节和许多传统节日。近代并没有发生变化。人们在婚礼和葬礼上仍然遵循许多当地习俗。遵循某些西方风俗的情况也很常见。

所以,我认为现在中国人的生活方式介于西方和东方之间。我没有看到古代中华文化的回归,除了那些一直存续至今的。

然而,许多新的文化现象正在涌现,这主要是由互联网一代和年轻人推动的。他们对美国、日本、韩国、中国等各种文化都持开放态度。他们也正在创造自己的21世纪版本的正宗中国文化。

例如,你会看到中国的青少年穿着漫威的T恤,走在去学校上中国传统乐器课,比如二胡或者中国画的路上,嘴里讨论的是韩国的电视节目。

试听一下这首中国歌曲,它是由年轻的中国民谣歌手和音乐家赵磊创作的。最近,这首歌在互联网和全国范围内迅速传播开来。

我认为中国在拥抱现代世界的同时,仍保留着许多适合现代生活的历史文化。为了复兴,中国的确正在恢复其在全球舞台上失去的地位,因为中国曾经是许多不同文明的文化中心。随着经济的发展,我们将在中国看到更多的国际文化活动,虽然这个国家整体上仍然被认为是保守的。

 译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/49791.html 译者:Joyceliu

 

Wenjie Piao

I don’t know if I see any renaissance. Or there needs to be one.

Firstly I don’t know if bunch of people dressing in ancient clothes is ‘renaissance’. As shallow as I am, the clothes seemed to me the last to represent our culture, being one that almost focused on the spiritual world of a man.

Secondly, I think the minute we yell save the traditional culture of China, we lose them for good. The very word traditional chills me, cutting ourselves from all things representing the old times, traditional, modern, that’s the very thing against historical materialism.

Thirdly, I think we think too much of ourselves. A thousand year old culture is not subjected for us to destroy or revive. You can embrace it, or not, it’s just there for you to dig, but don’t think anyone can make a dent on it, we are not that great, I certainly am not.

You know what I would define as a renaissance? An era, I won’t even aim for Tang. In the meantime, we can produce 5 painters on ink and wash paintings who would be remembered in history, and we can stop going to a zither concert like going to the zoo but start to really appreciate it, and produce one, just one, philosopher who can ‘guide’ our spirit for another 2500 years.

我不知道我是否看到了这种复兴。或者中国是否需要文化复兴。

首先,我不知道一群穿着古装的人是否就是你所谓的“文艺复兴”。尽管我很肤浅,但在我看来,这些衣服最不可能代表我们的文化,因为我们的文化专注于人的精神世界。

其次,我认为我们一喊拯救中国的传统文化,我们就永远失去了它们。“传统”这个词让我不寒而栗,让我们与所有代表过去、传统、现代的事物割裂开来,这正是与历史唯物主义相悖的东西。

第三,我认为我们把自己看得太重了。一千年的文化绝不是我们摧毁或复兴的对象。你可以接受它,也可以不接受它,它就存在于哪里,你可以挖掘,但不要认为任何人都能在它上面留下印记,我们没有那么伟大,我自己当然也没有。

你知道我怎么定义文艺复兴吗?在这样一个时代,我甚至不会以唐代诗歌为目标。与此同时,我们可以出现5位水墨画画家,留名历史,我们可以不再像逛动物园那样去听古筝音乐会,而是开始真正地欣赏这种音乐,产生一位,只要一位就够的哲学家,在未来的2500年里“引领”我们的精神。

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